Writing Resources


– 句号永远都要在””里面

– 脚注符号永远都在标点符号的后边

– 一定要学会cascading writing skills 其实说白了就是上下句的衔接;但是到了英文写作环境下多数中国作家还是会习惯性的天马行空。如果每句的开头都和上一句的结尾有衔接,会让读者心旷神怡,完整阅读。当然,文章的内容言之有物是王牌。



Historians and social scientists generally use “Chicago-Style” footnotes for citation.  A footnote provides important bibliographic information for facts, paraphrases, and quotations presented in the paper.


Inserting a footnote in Microsoft Word:
1. Place the cursor where you would like to insert a footnote.
2. In the references tab, click “Insert Footnote.”
3. Word will automatically place a footnote at the bottom of the page where you can enter the necessary citation.

Where should a footnote be placed?  Insert a footnote after the punctuation mark (period, comma, question mark, or exclamatory point) and the quotation mark.
Ex.  In 1860, approximately 40 percent of slaves were children under 12 years of age.1
Ex.    Belskaia hoped her letter would “become a vivid illustration of the cruel times of Stalinist excesses.”2

The first footnote for a source should contain full bibliographic information: publication information for the work plus the page number (example a). Subsequent footnotes should follow an abbreviated style (example b).  If you use the same source as cited in the previous note, use the Latin abbreviation “Ibid.” in place of the author and title (example c).

BOOKS: Citation Format

Work with one author (print):
a. Shoshana Keller, To Moscow, Not Mecca: The Soviet Campaign against Islam in Central Asia, 1917-1941  (Westport: Praeger, 2001), 38.
b. Keller, To Moscow, Not Mecca, 46.
c. Ibid., 42.
Work with two authors (print):
a. Maurice Isserman and Michael Kazin, America Divided: The Civil War of the 1960s (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000), 234.
b. Isserman and Kazin, America Divided, 176.
c. Ibid., 176.
Work with three or more authors (print):
a. Lawerence B. Goodheart et al., Slavery in American Society, 3rd ed. (Lexington: D.C. Heath, 1993), 124.
b. Goodheart et al., Slavery in American Society, 143.
Edited work (print):
a. Robert Louis Paquette and Louis A. Ferleger, eds., Slavery, Secession, and Southern History (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2000), 128.
b. Paquette and Ferleger, Slavery, Secession, and Southern History, 135.
Multi-edition work (print):
a. Nicholas V. Riasanovsky, A History of Russia, 6th ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000), 71.
b. Riasanovsky, A History of Russia, 272.
Multi-volume work (print):
a. George P. Rawick, ed., The American Slave: A Composite Autobiography, 21 vols. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1972), 5: 274-275.
b. Rawick, ed., The American Slave, 5:42.
Electronic books:
The note must include the elements above plus, as a final element, the format consulted.
Electronically published book:
a. Maurice Isserman and Michael Kazin, America Divided: The Civil War of the 1960s (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000), chapter 3. [Kindle edition, PDF e-book, Palm e-book, Microsoft Reader e-book].
Book consulted on-line:
a. Maurice Isserman and Michael Kazin, America Divided: The Civil War of the 1960s (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000), chapter 3. Plus the URL used.
N.B.: Page numbers are not always stable in electronic formats; you may need to use another locator such as chapter or section number.

ARTICLES: Citation Format

Journal article (print):
a. Douglas Ambrose, “Sowing Sentiment: Shaping the Southern Presbyterian Household, 1750-1800,” The Georgetown Law Journal 90 (November 2001), 149.
b. Ambrose, “Sowing Sentiment,” 152.
c. Ibid., 136.
Article in a book (print):
a. D.A. Washbrook, “Progress and Problems: South Asian Economic and Social History, c. 1720-1860,” in Modern India: An Interpretive Anthology, ed. Thomas R. Metcalf (New Dehli: Sterling, 1990), 199.
b. Washbrook, “Progress and Problems,” 231.
Untitled book review (print):
a. Michael Grow, review of Eisenhower and Latin America: The Foreign Policy of Anticommunism by Stephen G. Rabe, The American Historical Review, 94 (December 1989), 1508-1509.
b. Grow, review of Eisenhower and Latin America by Rabe, 1508-1509.
Newspaper article (print):
a. Lori Riley, “UCONN Passes Toughest of Tests,” Hartford Courant, 1 April 2002: A1.
b. Riley, “UCONN Passes Toughest of Tests,” A4.
Magazine article (print):
a. Roger Simon, “Show Time,” U.S. News & World Report, 29 April 2002: 16.
b. Simon, “Show Time,” 19.
Article in online journal:
a. Gueorgi Kossinets and Duncan J. Watts, “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network,” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 411, accessed February 28, 2010.
b. Kossinets and Watts, “Origins of Homophily,” 415.

OTHER SOURCES: Citation Format

Website page:
a. “Google Privacy Policy,” last modified March 11, 2009, http://www.google.com/intl/en/privacypolicy.html.
b. “Google Privacy Policy.”
a. George Bush, Interview by Dan Rather, CBS Evening News, Columbia Broadcasting System, 8 Feb. 1989.
b. Bush Interview, 8 February 1989.
Television or Radio Broadcast:
a. “The Shape of Texas,” prod. Tamara E. Robinson, KERA (PBS, 27 May 2002).
b. “The Shape of Texas.”

For more information on footnotes

please see:
• The Chicago Manual of Style 16th ed., Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010.
• Turabian, Kate. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations.  7th ed.  Chicago: University Press, 2007.
• The Chicago Manual of Style online: www.chicagomanualofstyle.org
• Suggested links at the Writing Center website: my.hamilton.edu/writing/home